The suburb of
Willoughby, which has traditionally also covered North Willoughby and
Willoughby East, is believed to have been named by Surveyor General Sir
Thomas Mitchell after his former superior officer, Sir James Willoughby
Gordon. It is bounded by Northbridge, Castlecrag and Middle Cove to the
east, and Chatswood to the north and west, while Flat Rock Creek
demarcates its southern boundary with Naremburn.
With the 'land boom'
following the first gold rushes, William Lithgow subdivided 600 acres
of land in the area and sold it at auction in 1854 under the name 'The
Township of North Willoughby'. There was little interest in the land,
however, and the area retained a largely rural character with orchards,
dairies and Chinese market gardens during the 19th century.
The first school was
established by the Bush Missionary Society in June 1862 and it reopened
at a new site on the corner of Penshurst Street and Mowbray Road in
August 1863 as the North Sydney National Public School. It was the
first public school on the North Shore and it continues today as the
Willoughby Public School. Click
here for further details.
The 19th century school building was
demolished in January 1936
and the present buildings shown here
were opened in July 1938.
WDHS David Warner collection #735.
Flat Rock Bridge
A large flat rock at
the junction of the two creeks running east to Middle Harbour at Long
Bay has played a central role in the settlement of the Willoughby area.
Although the creek was flood prone, the rock provided a fjord across
the creek for residents of the then rural settlement of Willoughby.
Soon after the rock the creek plunged down steep falls into a rocky
gorge. A track (later Flat Rock Road and now Willoughby Road) branched
off the Lane Cove Road at today's Crows Nest to cross the creek at the
In flood, the Flat
Rock crossing presented a danger to travellers. Eliza Davies, the first
teacher at what would become Willoughby Public School in the early
1860s, later recalled her experience in trying to cross the Flat Rock
in heavy rain:
We drove till we
came to the great Flat Rock. This was just what its name indicated,
honeycombed with great holes always full of water in dry weather. I
could navigate them dry-shod, but it was always covered with water in
the rainy season, and dangerous to cross, and over this my road lay;
but now it was impassable, a river a quarter of a mile wide was rushing
over it with mad fury, full of rapids, and concealing the holes with
its muddy water.1
The driver feared
that there was a danger in horses, carriage and all being swept away
over the nearby falls. Eliza had no choice but to be driven back. The
following day she took a long roundabout route west along the Lane Cove
Road to get home.
It was originally
intended that Flat Rock Road would then continue across another gully
and creek (Sailors Bay Creek) to end up at the junction of the proposed
High Street and Mowbray Road. Instead the early settlers found it
easier to veer west and skirt the hillside down to Flat Rock Creek,
still leaving a steep climb and another stream crossing known as
'Little Flat Rock' before finally conquering the hillside to reach the
present junction of Penshurst Street and Mowbray Road. Thus, Penshurst
Street became the main commercial thoroughfare of Willoughby and High
Street remained largely a residential area.2
infrastructure project for the first North Willoughby Municipal Council
in 1866 was the construction of a 'bridge' -- in reality the initial
structure was a crude barrage. It opened in 1869, but was swept away by
a flood the following year. A replacement bridge was constructed, but
when it too succumbed to a flood, a more substantial and higher bridge
was constructed in 1886. It was further raised and strengthened for the
Willoughby tramway in 1896 and this structure remains in place today
carrying the commuters and heavy vehicles who use Willoughby Road on a
daily basis. The creek below has long become a stormwater tunnel and
the graceful arch of the bridge now serves as a walkway and cycleway
connecting Artarmon with Tunks Park on Middle Harbour.
Workmen raising the approached to the Flat Rock Bridge
pose for the camera in the late 1880s.
Willoughby City Library, Local
Studies collection photo.
Provenance - C. Williams FURTHER READING :
Russell, Eric, Willoughby a Centenary History,
Chatswood, Council of the Municipality of Willoughby, 1966.
||Eliza Davies, The
Story of an Earnest Life: A Woman's Adventure in Australia,
Cincinnati, Central Book Crown, 1881.
||Leslie Charles Forsyth, Flat Rock
Road and Its Bridges, Sydney, Willoughby Municipal Council,
Described as one of the finest buildings in the northern suburbs, the three-storey hotel had
trading in May 1899. It was owned by the brewers Tooth & Company
and had 40 wellfurnished rooms and, for its day, every modern
convenience. Conveniently situated close to the local tanneries and the
tram terminus from Milsons Point was adjacent to its doors, the hotel
had a prosperous beer trade and there was no shortage of hotel guests.
first licensee was James Smith who sold the goodwill to Joseph Knight
Smith, with the licence transfer being formally approved on 1 May 1902.
The Hotel Willoughby was a favourite meeting place for tannery workers
who found the bars "well arranged and conducted", while the patrons
were regularly entertained by their host's tales of his adventures in
the Yukon and the Boer War. By 1918 Knight Smith had purchased five
blocks of land in McMahon Street, some of which he left in a virgin
state while others served as gardens to grow produce for the hotel's
The hotel flourished under Knight-Smith's efficient
management. In 1926 a local newspaper extolled "the brightness and
glitter of the island bar, exquisite taste of the mural embellishments,
the luxury of the lounges, the beauty of the adjoining conservatories
and the evidence of refinement and culture in
the appointments of the guest rooms".
Smith was very proud of his hotel. All maintenance was carried out
promptly and he was to claim in July 1922 that when he took over the
I found later [that
it] possessed a very shady reputation. During my occupancy, however, I
quickly altered its status and I may truthfully say without egotism
that today it is recognised as one of the most up-to-date residential
hotels conducted on proper lines as a Hotel should be, and that I as
the Licensee for over 21 years have kept it without a stigma to mar its
Joseph Smith retired from his interests in
Willoughby in 1928, although the licence for the Hotel Willoughby was
not transferred to George Augustus Bernor on 16 June 1931. It has seen
frequent changes in management over the years and a change of name to
'The Willoughby'. In 2012 new owners undertook extensive renovations
which saw the refurbishment of the second floor function rooms to
reflect their former glory under Joseph Knight Smith's time as licensee.
Bridge View Hotel
at 580 Willoughby Road, the Bridge View Hotel opened on 24 September
1928. It had been constructed by Stanley Cork, who had applied for a
liquor licence in 1926 for a proposed hotel he intended to build on
land he owned at this site. From Council rate books, it appears that
Cork was acting for Tooth & Company as it was listed as the owners
of the land before the existing shops and dwelling were demolished.
Among the petitioners supporting the application was Joseph Knight
Smith, the owner of the Hotel Willoughby, who acknowledged that the
suburb of Willoughby was expanding so rapidly that it could support a
second hotel at this location.
A conditional license was
granted for what would be named the Bridge View Hotel on 24 September
1927, with Elvy & Company commencing construction a few weeks
later. When completed, the fine three-storey building contained three
bars, a spacious dining room and 26 well-furnished guest rooms, each
with hot and cold showers and plunge baths. The first licensees were Mr
and Mrs FW Rose, formerly of the Bankstown Hotel.
been regular renovations to the hotel building over the years and it
remains a popular social venue for the neighbourhood. Various sporting
bodies, including the Willoughby Cricket Club, have made the hotel a
regular meeting and fund-raising venue.
1. Leslie, Esther, and Michaelides, Jean, Willoughby: The suburb and its people, Chatswood, Willoughby
Municipal Council, 1988, pp 142-145.
2. Sydney Morning Herald, Thursday 2 May 1902, p 3,'Licensing Court'.
3. Suburban Herald, 1926, quoted by Leslie & Michaerlides, 1988, as above.
4. Joseph Knight-Smith, letter to Tooth & Coy, 7 July 1922, quoted by Leslie & Michaerlides, 1988, as above.
5. Sydney Morning Herald, Wednesday 17 June, p 8, 'Hotel Licences Transferred'.
6. Leslie & Michaerlides, 1988, as above, pp 145=146.
Industry and Commerce
While the rocky Flat
Rock Gorge was a barrier to settlement, the soils derived from shale
bedrock along the creek's upper reaches, and especially those of
Sailors Bay Creek running into Middle Harbour, proved to be suitable
for agriculture. Thus orchards and market gardens provided the main
livelihood of the early settlers. By the 1870s Chinese market gardeners
had become prominent contributors to the economy of the district.
In 1869 James Forsyth
established the pioneer North Shore tannery, Rosewall, on Sailors Bay
Creek, while the Willoughby post office opened in 1871 'next to the
public school'. George Leaf opened a general store in Penshurst Street
by 1870 and the nonconformist Protestant Congregationalists in the area
opened their first church in Penshurst Street in 1871.